Common Pneumonia Symptoms

Pneumonia is inflammation and often infection of the lungs. Although some forms of pneumonia are mild and don?t require medical treatment, other forms of the disease can be severe and need prompt medical intervention. Statistics indicate that over 3 million people in the United States are diagnosed with pneumonia each year, and many of them require hospitalization. When pneumonia is caused by infectious agents, the disease is very contagious and it can be easily transmitted through sneezing, cough or physical contact. Therefore, many patients are not hospitalized for the seriousness of their disease, but to prevent them from spreading pneumonia to other people.

Pneumonia is inflammation and often infection of the lungs. Although some forms of pneumonia are mild and don?t require medical treatment, other forms of the disease can be severe and need prompt medical intervention. Statistics indicate that over 3 million people in the United States are diagnosed with pneumonia each year, and many of them require hospitalization. When pneumonia is caused by infectious agents, the disease is very contagious and it can be easily transmitted through sneezing, cough or physical contact. Therefore, many patients are not hospitalized for the seriousness of their disease, but to prevent them from spreading pneumonia to other people.

There are many forms of pneumonia and some are not caused by infection with microorganisms. Aspiration pneumonia is common in very small children and elderly people, but it can also occur in adults. This form of pneumonia is caused by inhalation of foreign matters: fluids, dust, chemicals or other irritants. This condition is mostly common in small children due to inhalation of vomit or food. Aspiration pneumonia symptoms are usually not very intense and they ameliorate within a few days. Aspiration pneumonia symptoms are: dry cough, chest soreness and pain, wheezing, difficult breathing. Although medical treatment is not required for overcoming this form of pneumonia, it is best to see a doctor as soon as you spot its symptoms.

Infectious forms of pneumonia can be either caused by viruses, bacteria and mycoplasmas. Viral and mycoplasma pneumonia are usually milder than bacterial forms of the disease and they rarely require medical treatment.

Viral pneumonia is very common in children, teenagers and elderly people and it can be mistaken for flu or cold. Viral pneumonia symptoms are: throat inflammation, cough, swelling of the lymph nodes, chest discomfort when breathing, headache and a generalized state of fatigue. The cough can sometimes produce small amounts of mucus. Mild fever and chills may accompany viral pneumonia symptoms in the early stages of the disease. Viral pneumonia symptoms usually ameliorate within a few days and the infection completely clears up on itself in a few weeks.

Bacterial pneumonia can be severe and therefore, it can produce more intense symptoms. Bacterial forms of pneumonia are more common in adults and people with weak immune system. Bacterial pneumonia symptoms are: high fever, excessive sweating, mucus-producing cough, shortness of breath, chest pain and soreness when breathing, abdominal pain, nausea, muscle pain, pronounced body weakness. Bacterial pneumonia symptoms can also include cyanosis (due to lack of blood oxygenation) and brown-colored mucus producing cough. If the disease is severe, the cough may contain traces of blood.

Mycoplasma pneumonia can be developed by anyone, regardless of health condition and age. However, this form of pneumonia is usually mild and doesn?t require any medical treatment. Mycoplasma pneumonia symptoms are: mucus producing cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, headache, fatigue. Other mycoplasma pneumonia symptoms are: moderate fever, chills, abdominal pain and discomfort, nausea and vomiting. This form of pneumonia develops slowly and its symptoms may only be perceived after several weeks from catching the disease. Although mycoplasma pneumonia is not considered to be serious, it is advised to see a doctor as soon as you spot its first symptoms.

How to detect the symptoms of child anxiety

This article features different types of child anxiety disorders and possible anxiety relief to the respective cases.

Children, as they say, love to play and go silly. Constantly running around, goofing his/her favorite routine, and other behaviors that we love to see in them. These manifestations say that our children are still physically and emotional fit. However, what if these little critters show unusual behavior? Feelings of restlessness, fatigue, irritability, and chronic sleep disturbances ? these are the basic symptoms that your child may be experiencing child anxiety. These excessive sensations do not only happen once a while, child anxiety attacks may even last up to six months.

Children, like all older human beings, experience different kinds of anxiety. Occasional feelings of fear and distress are very natural to a child’s healthy growth. However, to certain extent, these overwhelming sensations, are considered to be unhealthy if they overly distressing to children. Given all the possible child ?stressors? and other work that could induce stress to a child, it’s very important to be able know the various child anxiety disorders to be able to help our children. Parents have a very big role to play in helping children manage stress. At home, parents can ask their children about how their day went or whether they have concerns they want to discuss.

Actually, there are a number of child anxiety disorders such as Generalized Anxiety Disorders (GAD), Panic Attacks, and Separation Anxiety. GAD, as a form of child anxiety, is characterized by a overwhelming fear or worry to an event whether past, present of future. This can be caused by traumatic experienced such as physical or verbal abuse committed by a parent or an adult; an unusually burdensome test in school; and other serious events that have left emotional scars on a child. Parents and other adults must be able to identify the many symptoms of anxiety. The use of positive self-talk and therapy should be strongly considered. Panic disorders are described to be tenacious panic attacks and chronic concern that could cause further panic attack, or worse, harm. It is associated with intense feeling of fear and tense and sometime is accompanied with fearful thoughts. Physical manifestation of panic disorder ranges from sweating, choking, dizziness, chest pain and even faster heart rate. Symptoms of this anxiety type may intensify quickly but will, however, loss momentum henceforth.

Lastly, separation anxiety disorder, in layman’s terms, is an overwhelming fear or worry upon knowing that a person close to their heart is about to leave. Children would most likely show actions of disapproval. General symptoms of this anxiety are nightmares, nausea, headaches, vomiting and stomach pains. Anxiety, in children is no child’s play. giving them proper care and assistance is always the best way to help them to cope up with the situation. Wouldn’t you like your child to retain their juvenile joy?

Symptoms of child anxiety are not only matters for discussion at the clinic or at the office of your therapist. These symptoms must be studied and consciously observed by parents and adult guardians. If left to chance, we may be putting our children’s health and happiness at risk.

The Symptoms & Treatment Of Menopause

Commonly associated with the advancing of age, menopause is often referred to as ?the change of life.? During it?s occurrence, the ovaries stop producing estrogen and the reproductive system begins to gradually shut down. As the body attempts to adjust to the changing levels of hormone during menopause, a variety of symptoms may occur. Among them, depression, anxiety, hot flashes, irritability, changes in moods, the inability to concentrate, etc. In addition to these symptoms…

Commonly associated with the advancing of age, menopause is often referred to as ?the change of life.? During it?s occurrence, the ovaries stop producing estrogen and the reproductive system begins to gradually shut down. As the body attempts to adjust to the changing levels of hormone during menopause, a variety of symptoms may occur. Among them, depression, anxiety, hot flashes, irritability, changes in moods, the inability to concentrate, etc. In addition to these symptoms, women may experience irregular menstrual periods during menopause.

The average age that a woman begins to see the onset of menopause is 50, but there are women who enter menopause earlier. A hysterectomy is a surgical procedure that is often performed in order to help women through the process. Once the cycle is complete, known as being post-menopausal, women will find that they are at an increased risk of developing osteoporosis.

The treatment for menopause typically includes Hormone Replacement Therapy and is believed to reduce the weakening of bones often seen in osteoporosis. Through the years, there has been much debate as to whether this type of therapy is actually beneficial. Some women feel that menopause is a natural process as opposed to a disorder. For years, women have been urged to undergo hormone therapy while they are dealing with menopause. They were told to do so under the belief that it would reduce their risk of heart disease, but some experts believe that this type of therapy may actually increase the risk of other illnesses, including breast cancer, heart attack, stroke and Alzheimer?s disease.

Because each woman is unique, menopause may ultimately produce some or all of the aforementioned symptoms. Because these symptoms are also common with other illnesses, the only way to confirm menopause is by seeing a physician. Following a diagnosis, a doctor will be able to provide the best type of medication and/or treatment to help guide the woman through menopause and help her body to make up for the hormones that are no longer being produced as before. It is important that women carefully consider any medications that may increase depression or cause other severe symptoms during not only menopause, but any time in life. The fact that some medication is addictive is just one of the issues to remain concerned with anytime a doctor writes a prescription. In order to avoid these problems, women are urged to ask their physician about possible side effects associated with medication that is used to treat menopause.

The information in this article is to be used for informational purposes only. It should not be used in place of, or in conjunction with, professional medical advice. Anyone with questions regarding menopause must consult their physician for further information.

The Symptoms Menopause Changes Estrogen And Progesterone Levels

The Symptoms Of Menopause Are Caused Changes Estrogen And Progesterone Levels

The symptoms of menopause are caused by changes in estrogen and progesterone levels. When estrogen drops suddenly, as is seen when the ovaries are removed surgically (called surgical menopause), symptoms can be more severe. Perimenopause begins several years before menopause, when the ovaries gradually produce less estrogen. Currently, hormone replacement therapy (estrogen with or without progestin) is the primary treatment for the symptoms and long-term risks associated with menopause. The work is the latest salvo in a years-long back and forth about memory, menopause, and estrogen. During menopause, the ovaries produce less estrogen than during the reproductive years. As a result, many problems women have with menopause relate to low estrogen levels.

Perimenopause is the span of time prior to menopause when the ovaries’ production of estrogen begins to slow down. Women experiencing peri- and postmenopause have found that supplemental estrogen provides the hormones they need to produce and maintain physical and emotional well being. During postmenopause, the depleted level of estrogen can increase other health-related risks such as heart disease and osteoporosis. The lower amounts of estrogen that come with menopause will cause changes in your body. Other Therapies Women also can take selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) to help prevent some of the bone problems that can occur during menopause. Generally in the past when a woman advanced into menopause, a doctor would routinely prescribe estrogen or progesterone in various strengths. During menopause, it is believed that when estrogen levels drop, this decreases the amount of serotonin available to the brain. Many physicians recommend estrogen replacement therapy to: Reduce the undesirable symptoms of menopause.

At this stage, many women experience menopause symptoms (see below). Middle-aged herself, Northrup writes from experience and, more important, from her professional expertise as a physician who has treated many women and researched menopause. A population based survey of women’s experience of the menopause. You may begin to experience signs and symptoms of menopause well before your periods stop permanently. Prior to the onset of menopause, a woman can experience major changes in her moods and attitude. Prognosis Although menopause is a difficult period for some, most women will experience menopause without long-term problems. Women in perimenopause transition typically experience abnormal vaginal bleeding such as erratic periods or abnormal bleeding patterns. Women who smoke experience the menopause at an earlier age than non-smokers. However, many women experience major life changes during their middle age including menopause and sleep disturbances, which can increase the risk of developing depression. In the past, menopause was shrouded in mystery and often viewed as a negative experience and a precursor to death. Most women experience menopause between the ages of about but some go through it years earlier or later, as well. “But some fortysomething women are beginning to experience menopause and many find their desire for sex declines,” Gupta informed us. Some experience menopause problems that their friends never do. In the western world about 12% of woman don’t experience symptoms of menopause and about 14% experience intense physical or emotional problems.

Women and physicians have questions and concerns about the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) during and after menopause. Like Sheehy, she reassured women that menopause encourages a journey inwards towards wisdom and serenity.%u201D Menopausally-provoked spiritual insight continues to strike publishing gold. Several generations ago, few women lived beyond menopause. In some women the early menopause occurs spontaneously. The same may be true of women approaching menopause, many of whom live a life filled with stress and worry. Malnourished women begin menopause about 4 years earlier than well-nourished womenEarly onset of menstruation. Each week nearly 30,000 women of all ages and stages find their spirits lifted by the show’s light-hearted look at menopause. While some women choose to live with their symptoms, there are many therapies for the conditions associated with menopause. Today, women can expect to live one third of their lives after menopause.

Pueraria Mirifica capsule Pueragold THAI FDA. G. 10/2003 (E)

Pueragold is a premuim grade Thai herbal product derived mainly from the White Kwao Krua (Pueraria Mirifica) which contains. Phytoestrogen (Natural Plant Estrogen). This all-natural herbal formula stimulates and rebalances older women and men hormones level.

Pueraria Mirifica CAPSULE Pueragold THAI FDA. G. 10/2003 (E)

ALL Natural Dietary Supplement

High Phytoestrogens (especially isoflavones):

*Reduces Menopausal/Post-Menopausal symptoms

*Increases sensitivity and vitality

*Enhances physical and mental ability

*Darken white hair & increases hair growth

*Alleviates sleep disorder & improves eyesight

*Enhances Breast and Skin Appearance

*Supports Healthy Prostate Function

*Supports Healthy Bone Structure

Ingredients: Pueraria Mirifica and other herbs

Packaging: 60 capsules per box

Recommended Dosage:

Men/Post-Menopausal Women: Take 1 capsule after breakfast and dinner everyday

Precautions: *If should not be used in pregnant women,nursing cervix mothers, or women diagnosed with tumors in estrogen-sensitive organs, e.g., ovary, uterus and breast.
http://www.phuketherb.com/phytoestrogen-natural-plant-estrogen.html

Inguinal hernia information and symptoms

Inguinal hernia is a disease that affects millions of people, one of the most widespread types of hernia. But many do not know about its existence and it is the subject of very few medical articles and books.

Inguinal hernia is a disease that affects millions of people, one of the most widespread types of hernia. But many do not know about its existence and it is the subject of very few medical articles and books.

Inguinal hernia occurs when some of the tissue that is part of the intestine pushes through a spot in the abdominal wall. As a result, severe pain can appear. Pain increases if someone who suffers from inguinal hernia lifts something heavy, coughs or makes some specific types of movements.

Inguinal hernia symptoms are different from one person to another, so you can’t say that there are some signs that appear at everyone suffering from this hernia, but there are some that manifest quite often. So what is listed here does not have to apply to you. For information that applies to you, visit your doctor.
The most common inguinal hernia symptoms are groin pain and lump and intestinal blockage in severe cases. Men often complained of pain in the scrotum. The most common symptom is a large bulge that can easily be seen and felt.

The disease itself is not dangerous, but if it is not treated it may lead to severe complications that may even lead to death in some extreme cases.
This is why doctors recommend surgery as soon as inguinal hernia is starting to cause pain or it is starting to grow.
In the past, the surgery for inguinal hernia involved a large opening in the abdomen followed by a long time spent in the hospital for recovery, but nowadays the surgical tehniques have improved a lot and the operation can be done in a much easier way and without weeks of recovery in the hospital.

Even some children have been diagnosticated with inguinal hernia but these cases were rare. Inguinal hernia can sometimes appear at newborns because the abdominal wall is weak at birth. It can easily be detected because the bulge created is visible, especially when the child coughs.

List of Menopause Symptoms

Many women do not know what the symptoms of menopause are. Learn about the variety of menopause symptoms in women.

Menopause is not a disease or an illness. It is permanent ending of menstruation in women. Menopause marks the end of a woman?s natural ability to bear children.

Menopause symptoms are as different as women themselves. Some women do not have any symptoms during menopause or only have a few symptoms. Other women develop disturbing and even severe symptoms.

In the western world about 12 percent of woman do not experience symptoms of menopause and about 14 percent experience intense physical or emotional problems. The average age of US women in whom menopause occurs is 51 years.

For most women, menopause is a normal occurrence. If menopause happens in a woman younger than 40 years, it is considered premature. Menopause is considered late if it occurs in a woman older than 55 years.

Here is an almost complete list of menopause symptoms.

Hot flashes

Night sweats

Sleep disorders

Changes in menstruation

Mood swings

Depression and anxiety

Irritability

Difficulties in concentrating

Mental confusion

Memory problems

Decline in libido

Vaginal dryness

Urinary problems

Thinning of the skin around the cervix.

Breast tenderness

Tiredness

Hair loss and hair thinning

Headaches

Cardiovascular disease

Osteoporosis

Weight gain.

Keep in mind that most women will only have a few symptoms from this list of menopause symptoms. Symptoms can be noticed for several months to years before the last menstrual period and can continue for several years after.

Sleep Apnea Symptoms & Solutions

Apnea, in terms of the Greek word, is defined as ?without breath.? This is exactly what happens to individuals who suffer from sleep apnea, which is a serious medical condition that causes the sufferer to completely stop breathing on more than one occasion throughout the night.

Apnea, in terms of the Greek word, is defined as ?without breath.? This is exactly what happens to individuals who suffer from sleep apnea, which is a serious medical condition that causes the sufferer to completely stop breathing on more than one occasion throughout the night.

While it may be difficult to realize the symptoms of sleep apnea because they occur during sleep, it is possible if you know what to watch for. For instance, you may notice uncommon exhaustion throughout the day, a general feeling of fatigue, frequent or long-lasting headaches or irritability. These symptoms occur due to lack of sleep, which is caused by sleep apnea. In addition, if your spouse notices intense snoring or long pauses between breaths at night, you may be suffering from sleep apnea.

The only person who can positively identify sleep apnea is a licensed physician. He or she may ask a series of question or, in some instances, recommend a sleep study by asking you to spend the night in a supervised sleep center. At this type of facility, the purpose is to determine whether or not you suffer from sleep apnea. A series of monitoring devices will be placed on your body in order to detect your breathing patterns throughout the night.

Sleep apnea, when left untreated, can be extremely dangerous. In fact, it can lead to heart disease, a stroke or other major health problems. In addition to the obvious health risks, sleep apnea may lessen your immune system?s ability to fight disease or the loss of sleep can cause you to be impaired when driving. Sleep apnea treatments may include sleeping on your side instead of your back, giving up alcohol and cigarettes, ridding your home of allergens, maintaining a healthy diet and exercise program or the use of a doctor recommended at-home apnea treatment.

A product known as the Sleep Genie, which is a doctor recommended anti-snoring device, is available to help provide comfort to those with sleep apnea. Manufactured of a comfortable nylon lycra blend, the Sleep Genie comfortably supports the jaw while keeping the mouth closed to prevent snoring. While the Sleep Genie is not intended as a cure for sleep apnea, many users find additional comfort when using this product with the Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) machine, which provides continuous air pressure to help prevent the collapse of tissue in the throat that often blocks air passages during sleep. Users of the CPAP machine need to sleep with their mouth closed in order to prevent the air from escaping, which is where the Sleep Genie often proves beneficial.

This article is intended for informational purposes only. It should not be used as, or in place of, professional medical advice. Before beginning any treatment for snoring, please consult a doctor for a proper diagnosis and remedy.

What Are The Symptoms Of Sleep Apnea?

Sleep apnea is identified with pauses in breathing while asleep. There are signs to look out for that may indicate you are suffering from sleep apnea. Sleep apnea can be a dangerous condition so you should consult your doctor should you display any of the common symptoms. The following paragraphs offer some answers.

Sleep apnea is identified with pauses in breathing while asleep. There are signs to look out for that may indicate you are suffering from sleep apnea. Sleep apnea can be a dangerous condition so you should consult your doctor should you display any of the common symptoms. The following paragraphs offer some answers.

Of all the sleep apnea symptoms, the first one that comes to mind is sleepiness. Someone with sleep apnea struggles to get a good night?s sleep. Consequently, that individual is always sleepy. Yet sleepiness represents only one of the sleep apnea symptoms.

Some sleep apnea symptoms are similar to those found with sleep deprivation. Morning headaches and dry mouth are examples of such symptoms. Repeated morning headaches and frequent episodes of dry mouth could easily a sign that you?re suffering with sleep apnea.

Other sleep apnea symptoms are problems with concentration, forgetfulness and depression. These are among the less obvious sleep apnea symptoms. They represent behavior that has been associated with many things other than sleep deprivation. They might easily be overlooked or attributed to hunger, aging, or stress.

One way to determine whether or not lapses in alertness result from sleep apnea is to try and improve the quality and quantity of your sleep.

Keeping regular hours bedtime hours, avoiding caffeine and the development of a bedtime routing should all help you to sleep better. If you use these strategies, over a period of time your daytime sleepiness should diminish. However, if you don?t start to see improvement after a couple of weeks it may be that you are suffering with sleep apnea and a visit to your doctor would be advised.

Formal identification of sleep apnea requires observation during sleep. Snoring can be another sleep apnea symptom, although not all those snore suffer with sleep apnea. Unfortunately, not all individuals have someone at hand to listen for sounds of snoring. With small children, snoring is less pronounced and sleep apnea is best detected by a skilled physician.

Regardless of an individual?s age or medical history, the presence of sleep apnea symptoms needs to be addressed. Consult with your physician if you are concerned about sleep apnea.

How To Overcome The Symptoms Of Gout

Gout is one of the oldest and most painful diseases known to man. In the middle ages a gout patient was described as someone who was rich, corpulent and aristocratic, particularly one with enormous appetite for food, drink and women. And it is almost and always associated with men.

Gout is one of the oldest and most painful diseases known to man. In the middle ages a gout patient was described as someone who was rich, corpulent and aristocratic, particularly one with enormous appetite for food, drink and women. And it is almost and always associated with men.

The symptoms of gout are irregular, excruciatingly painful attacks that are felt in the joints although typically each gouty episode affects one joint at a time. The most commonly affected joints are those of the big toe, which becomes red and swollen, hot and painful so that even the weight of a bed sheet seems unbearable. Other joints such as the knees and elbows are also affected, but one at a time.

The attacks usually last for about two weeks and then subside, recurring at some time in the future. The reoccurrence of the attacks varies ? sometimes the gout symptoms don?t entirely disappear, causing a patient to feel pain all the time.

With current medical technologies and with the use of advanced microscopic examination the real cause of gout was finally identified. And the culprit was none other than uric acid. The excruciating pain in the joints is due to the pointy crystals of uric acid.

Some patients have too much uric acid in their system, and they tend to develop yellowish chalk-like deposits around the joints or in other parts of their body such as the ear lobes. Most patients of gout have blood levels that show elevated uric acid, a manifestation of gout in their system.

The next step is finding ways to decrease and control the formation of excessive uric acid that usually accompanies a gluttonous lifestyle. Uric acid is actually a by-product of purine; a type of protein found in many commonly consumed foods.

It is therefore rational to conclude that gout is caused by excessive protein in the diet especially those proteins that are rich in purines. With this information to guide doctors, they have placed gout patients in a series of low-protein diets that are low in purines. Likewise, drugs that prevent formation of uric acid are given.

Patients are also advised to choose lean meats, low fat dairy products and limit the intake of fats in their diet. Newer theories on gout suggest that the gout disease is not only the result of a high protein diet (it has been observed patients suffering from different diseases also have high levels of uric acid) it may also be caused by excessive consumption of refined sugar and flour. This might help to explain why most gout patients are obese.

Lastly, gout is truly a disease that results from the inability of the kidney to excrete enough uric acid to keep it from building up inside the body. Nevertheless, a treatment program that includes a decrease in protein intake plus the use of other medication helps to prevent the build up of uric acid and lowering chances of gout attacks.

The Different Types Of Incontinence Symptoms Explained

There are different ways to classify incontinence by dividing it between stress and urge related incontinence.

There are different ways to classify incontinence by dividing it between stress and urge related incontinence.

Urge incontinence is a state in which you know that you want to urinate but you just can?t hold it to reach the restroom even for a short time. With urge incontinence, you can feel the leakage coming. There?s no way to hold it longer, and if you try to run fast to the bathroom, the more likely you are to urinate prematurely. This condition is found after a bladder surgery and also radiation therapy and when females reach the postmenopausal stage. The withdrawal of their estrogen can result in urge incontinence developing.

Stress Incontinence is the most common type of incontinence. Women who have had children may experience this situation because their urinary tract has been compromised during pregnancy and childbirth. The leakage happens when they are sneezing, coughing, and laughing or when lifting a heavy object, which puts pressure in the bladder. Stress incontinence is described as the leakage when abdominal pressure is achieved this is most often caused by surgery and lax pelvic floor muscles.

Overflow incontinence is observed in bladders that are not working well because of the impaired sensation, passage destruction, and poor contractility. This happens when the amount of the urine goes beyond the capacity of the bladder, causing the urine to leak. You may have an unpleasant feeling because you feel that your bladder is never empty.

Some people with incontinence experience longer times in the bathroom because of the unpleasant feeling it gives them. Some people control this when they feel that their bladder is again full. This problem may be caused by physical obstructions and an example of this includes the prostate problems that men encounter.

Reflex incontinence is due to neurological trauma or spinal disease when you only have a little or no sensation at all. Also, you do not have control of the bladder which causes leakage. You may not feel your urine coming but notice that leakage took place before you knew it.

People who suffer with more than one type of incontinence experience mixed type incontinence. This means that you may have stress incontinence that may become functional incontinence. When a patient?s symptom does not fall into the types of incontinence as explained above, most definitely, it is considered the mixed type incontinence.

Incontinence may be the result of some surgical procedures brought on by rectal surgery or prostate and caesarean surgery. Treating the different types of incontinence must be decided with a plan. It may take a physical examination, analyzing your medical history and lengthy discussions with your doctor to establish a proper diagnosis.